Science and Business in American Experience

Freedom of struggle or free enterprise applied in the United States produces a rapid civilization in the field of science, technology, and business. The American people take advantage of the independence climate by opening a store or research laboratory. Freedom makes good creativity, according to individual interests, which then compete with each other to foster an advanced America.

The development of science and technology in America was carried out rapidly around the 19th century. Many American scientists were pursuing new technology from the results of their scientific experiments. At this time, we found cotton seed separators, spinning machines, steamers, telegraphs, “the wizard of Edison” or electric light bulbs, and thousands of different findings that made America the fastest civilization in the world. E. L. Bogart, an American economic historian, wrote: “invention became a national habit.”

The development of science and technology in America has to do with a collection of bankers who helped foster America. Famous bankers like John. D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan, Westinghouse, and Vanderbilt are people who cannot be excluded from the history of American development because their money funds American scientists running individual laboratories as a new technological workshop that makes America “Great America.” In this paper, J.P Morgan’s story with Thomas Alva Edison will be discussed as an example of the relationship between science-technology and a business that successfully illuminates America.

It’s the same with gambling business, although the government has regulation on it, some people still categorize it as non working material. The business definitely has science on it, where it needs to calculate the average chance so company can still make revenue on each plays. Not just in America, the popularity of this kind of business has spread to Asia also. With similar product such as sportsbook and agen casino online, many people try to register a legal entity for their business.

Thomas Alva Edison’s Brief Profile: Inventor of Incandescent Light Bulbs

Thomas Alva Edison was coined on a cold winter morning on February 11, 1847, in the village of Milan, Ohio. He was the last child of Samuel Ogden Edison, Jr., a British and Dutch immigrant who migrated to America in 1838. Edison appeared in an abnormal atmosphere with large head size.

Edison, who is usually called “Al,” grew up with a health situation that was not good enough and felt like he knew the big one. He often asks “why?”, “What?” And “where?” However, the feeling of wanting to do it often causes problems. The cruelest thing that Edison had done when he was six, namely, the burning of his father’s warehouse which happened accidentally the effect of Edison’s curiosity would be what would happen if he ignited a small fire in the warehouse. Because of his “mischief,” his neighbor often watched Edison beaten by his father at home. Edison and his father did not have a good relationship, and this matter was evident from the story of Edison who said, “My father, I was stupid, and I almost decided I must be a dunce.”

Edison at school is a quiet child. He was disappointed at the words of his father who always wrote him ignorance and the teacher’s lack of sympathy for him. Edison’s disappointment peaked after about three months following the lessons at school. He ran away from school and refused to go to school again. When Edison’s mother faced the headmaster, the man wrote that Edison felt retardation.

Edison can only learn well visually, as written in his biography, “for one instant, was better learning about something he had never seen for two hours.” Therefore, his mother concluded to teach Edison himself at home.

He handed books to Edison, and when the mother realized Edison’s interest in science, she handed over four basic physical science books that could be practiced at home. Soon, the book became a “toy” that was very favored by little Edison, who at the time was still nine years old.

Behind the accident will be people who do not sympathize with him, Edison is the most stubborn person. He learned something with his method. Even though his mother inspired him, his mother could not teach him. He taught himself, and the mother let him. “My mother was the making of me. She understood me; she let me follow my bent, “recalled Edison.

Besides liking physics, Edison also loves chemistry. At the age of ten, he started the design of his telegraph set by combining chemicals and gas. So, when children his age play in the fields or pick up fish in the river, Edison entertains himself through his elementary school in an underground laboratory equipped with chemical and electrical equipment.

He drained his money to buy powder and chemicals for his experimental needs. Edison did not enjoy a childhood like children of his age. He didn’t play snowball during the winter and didn’t play soccer on the field during the summer, but he drew not a few sketches of the engine and modeled his steam engine and telegraph in his teens.

Besides working on his science experiments, Edison worked. He started his business at the age of eleven by marketing food (onions, corn, lettuce, cabbage, and peas) which he harvested himself with his friend, Michael Oates.

He also worked as a newspaper and candy vendor on the railroad tracks that traveled through Port Huron (Michigan), Detroit, at the age of thirteen. Then, at the age of sixteen, Edison was accepted to work full time as a wire or telegrapher sender. He used this activity to get around America because he was placed in as many cities.

In 1868, Edison arrived in the city of Boston, in the province of Massachusetts. This is where Edison began his career as a telegraph inventor. He received a patent for his findings in the form of an electric or electric vote recorder voice recorder on June 1, 1869, a tool used by Congress to speed up the voting process.

That same year, after moving to New York, Edison also patented a telegraph stock ticker improvisation tool called the Universal Stock Printer. From this finding, Edison discovered the US $ 40,000 from the Western Union Telegraph Company which made his stock ticker purchase. Not enough money to build a small laboratory with ease of production in Newark, New Jersey, in 1871.

In the Newark laboratory, Edison worked for about seven years. He produced inventions and production equipment to perfect the telegraph which was currently developing rapidly in America and pursued paper-wrapping candles and stencil machines. In Newark also Edison married Mary Stilwell and fostered his family until they moved to Menlo Park, a small village located twenty-five miles west of New York City.

Here, Edison fostered a new laboratory with the most sophisticated equipment at the time and initiated his experiments that worked on the world. One of them was the discovery of an electric light bulb in 1879, which Edison worked on with his staff for many years.

The invention was patented with a number 222,898 as “Electric Lamp for Giving Light by Incandescence” or an incandescent light bulb, which can be lit for about forty-four hours. Although this electric light is not a new idea, Edison improvised not a few things, like generators, electricity meters, conductors, and not a few more like Edison said, “a thousand details of the world never hears of it.”

J.P Brief Profile Morgan: Rich American Banker

John Pierpont Morgan (J.P. Morgan) sprung up in Hartford, Connecticut, on April 17, 1837. He is the son of an experienced American financier, namely Junius Spencer Morgan. It’s not like Edison who didn’t finish regular school since the age of nine, J.P. Morgan got the best proper education. He graduated from high school at Boston’s English High School and continued his studies at the University of Gottingen.

After graduating with a good grade in 1857, Morgan returned to New York and began his career in business and finance. He started his eloquent career at the age of twenty by becoming an accountant at Duncan, Sherman & Co., a typical company of George Peabody & Co. in America. Then, after the Civil War ended, he joined his father’s financial firm, Drexel, Morgan & Co. — in 1895, the company changed its name to J.P. Morgan & Co.

Morgan, who since he was a child, has been taught by his father the technique of managing family assets, growing up to be the smartest competent young man in the fields of business, finance, and banking. His ambitious character and courageous risk made him a formidable opponent for business and commercial rivals in America, like John D. Rockefeller, Westinghouse, and as many bankers who were as ambitious as him. His career rose rapidly, even after 1871 J.P Morgan with the Vanderbilts played an essential role in leadership in Western Union.

T.A. Edison and J.P. Morgan Illuminates the United States

In September 1878, Edison campaigned for his electric light research which would soon be completed. He invited all reporters to come to his laboratory in Menlo Park and wrote that he would make “illumination by Gaslight” which utilizes electric power.

Soon, the news was published in the New York Sun newspaper, the New York Herald, and the New York Tribune. Other media also came to Edison’s laboratory to interview the scientist who often created sensations on his findings that contributed to fostering America.

Behind the good news that Edison campaigned for, it turned out that Edison felt a big problem that was hindering the discovery of his electric lights, namely funds. Edison said, “All I want is to be provided with enough funds to push the light rapidly.”

Hearing this business, Grosvenor Lawrey — Edison’s friend who worked in Western Union — met with W.H. Vanderbilt, Twombly, and J.P. Morgan — the syndicate of American capitalists who was a leader of Western Union — to write that Edison needed funds to continue the electric light project. Edison realized this business was the riskiest, but that was the price that must be fulfilled for his dream of making a new model of electric lights.

J.P. Morgan, despite the success of changing the capital of his spectacularly large father’s business, but he was eager to have an industry whose products could be consumed by the wider community, like John. D. Rockefeller with an oil business that is used by almost all people in America to burn lights in their homes.

Therefore, when he heard the news, he became so enthusiastic. He approached Edison and Edison accepted it gladly because he saw that his project would develop quickly because of his connection with Morgan.

After finding capital from Morgan, Edison immediately completed the electric light project. He studied the model of electric lights that had been discovered by scientists before and made models of their electric lights, an electric light that could be used by many people at low prices.

Edison changed the platinum material which is expensive and has low durability with a filament. The electric light project passed in October 1879 and found patents in November of the same year. Edison prepares to light America.

The first Iritrik lamp demonstration was carried out ahead of New Year’s Eve 1880. Edison and his team illuminated the laboratory at Menlo Park with the finding of the electric lights. Three thousand people gathered in front of the laboratory, and when the lights turned on, viewers were amazed and dumbfounded. Edison has alluded to God because he can manipulate fire.

J.P. Morgan, who invested not a little money on this project, also participated in promoting electric lights. He installed electric lights in his magnificent home and invited relatives and business associates. “This is a wizard,” they said.

Seeing the excellent response from the community, Edison with Morgan’s direction began producing electric lights that he had perfected. He fostered the power station and noted the newspaper to ensure that the technology that uses electricity is safe to use.

Electric light business ventures are running, and within six years Edison’s capital has tripled. Electric lights successfully illuminate cities in the United States. Not only illuminating the location of living residents, but electric lights also illuminate hotels, factories, and shops in the United States. Morgan is not useless to invest in this exciting light project.

The success of electric lights does not directly interpret that the collaboration between Edison and Morgan is mutually beneficial. J.P. Morgan, who wanted the lighting industry to reduce Edison too much. This caused Edison not to be independent in developing his business to fit his wishes and made him almost lose a patent because the capitalist urged it to market half of his shares.

Morgan used Edison to make more money for himself. He did not want to be a rival in the lighting industry business, so when Nikola Tesla appeared with the technology of electric motors that used alternating electrical currents — opponents of the same flows used by Edison — Morgan asked Edison to surpass Tesla — funded by Westinghouse, a business rival Morgan.

“The world only has a location for one winner,” Morgan said. As a result, to cool Morgan, Edison noted the newspaper to drop Tesla-Westinghouse. Edison, passing his writings, threatened the community by writing that the alternating electric current was the most dangerous.


The relationship between technology and business produces positive and negative consequences. In the T.A. Edison and J.P. Morgan, capital from businessman has accelerated the growth of discoveries in the fields of science and technology. This, in turn, allowed the production of the technology in bulk, to the point that the invention gave the advantage to the scientist to reverse the money for capital providers.

J.P. Morgan watched Edison’s electric lights as a promising business area because these lights were marketed at a low price to the extent that people from all walks of life could buy them. Whereas Edison, although aware that investment from a capitalist is like J.P. Morgan can make him intervened, still accepting because he needs funds for the electric light project. However, for Edison electric lights are not valuable as selling goods, but a work that can be useful for America’s progress.

In addition to positive consequences, there are also negative consequences of collaboration between scientists and providers of capital. In this problem, the capital provider who only thinks of making as much money as possible has intervened in the findings of the scientist. Investors encourage scientists to manipulate science to bring down business opponents. This is undoubtedly detrimental to the world of science because it turns off the opening of new findings the impact of politicization in economic interests.

7 Must-Visit Attractions in America

The Americas has vast land to the point that it can offer millions of tourist locations which will undoubtedly make you confused to choose it. Most people will plan vacations in America solely in many places, such as the beaches of Florida and California, or remote areas like Hawaii and Alaska.

The United States is home to some of the most spectacular sights in the world. This country is also home to many unique places that are very famous in the world. Because of the many choices of tourist sites in America that you can visit, we have included 7 tourist sites in America that are very famous and popular.

White house

The White House located in Washington DC is the official residence and office of the President of the United States. Built between 1792 and 1800, this building was once used by President John Adams. For now, access to traffic to the White House is far more challenging to compare before there is a WTC bombing event. For those who can come to this building, tourists must work on reservations in at least six months before the date of traffic through members of Congress or US Ambassadors in each country and are limited to only 7 groups each time.

Las Vegas Strip

Las Vegas is a tourist spot in America that has become an icon of world gambling. Located in the southern elements of the Nevada desert, the Las Vegas Strip is known as a resort, hotel and casino center. Walking along the Las Vegas Strip, you will be treated to views of the mega resorts and giant casinos with the ease of flamboyant luxury as it takes place in an amusement park for adults.


Waikiki is home to familiar beaches in the Hawaiian Islands and beyond. Waikiki has become a popular tourist destination for about a century because this region is a cross between a tropical paradise and a modern city. In this tourist location in America, you can feel the pleasure of relaxing under a palm tree, enjoying the sea breeze and the waves that soothe the heart, with the background of tall buildings and shopping centers. Here tourists from all corners of the world gather to sunbathe, feel the typical culinary, shopping and surfing.

Florida Keys

The Florida Keys is a collection of coral islands located off the coast of southern Florida. The Florida Keys have become among the tourist attractions in America that are very popular for Americans who dig tropical vacations without having to leave their own country. The main tourist activities in the Florida Keys include fishing, scuba diving, and snorkeling, boating, sailing, kayaking, and eco-tourism.

The Florida Keys are not more than 110 miles long, and each island is connected to a bridge called the Overseas Highway. There are 5 unique spots in the Florida Keys, namely Key Largo where you can enjoy the beauty of the underwater, familiar Islamorada as a place for sport fishing, Marathon which offers many resorts for relaxing locations, Big Pine Key which provides many types of tours like snorkeling or bird watching, and Key West, also known as Last Resort.

Walt Disney World Resort

Opened in 1971, Walt Disney World successfully maintained its existence as an attractive amusement park for children or parents. Located in Bay Lake, Florida, this tourist location in America has not a few attractions that it feels will not be completed if visited in just one day, starting Disney’s Animal Kingdom, Disney’s Hollywood Studios , Magic Kingdom, Disney’s Typhoon Lagoon, Disney’s Wedding Pavilion, Disney Springs, Disney’s Blizzard Beach, Epcot, golf course and still not a few others. It takes less than 7 days to be able to enjoy all the rides at Disney World.

Golden Gate Bridge

The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge that stretches across the Golden Gate Strait, connecting the San Francisco Bay and Marin County. This bridge is felt like the most beautiful bridge in the world, especially for photography enthusiasts. Opened since 1937, the Golden Gate Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in the world. The orange-red color of the Golden gate is chosen exclusively to create a bridge that is easier to see through the thick fog which often covers the deck.

Yellowstone National Park

Yellowstone National Park is the first national park in America which opened in 1872 with a destination to preserve as many geysers and hot water, protect wildlife, and guard the beauty of the region.

Of the few geysers found in tourist sites in America, the very famous name is Old Faithful Geyser. This geyser is one of the geographical symptoms on earth which is very easy to guess because it erupts every time is not enough more than 90 minutes.

Besides, there is also the Grand Prismatic Spring which is the third largest hot spring in the world with a combination of red, yellow, orange, and blue. The amazing color of the Grand Prismatic Spring is caused by pigmented bacteria that grow near the edge of the water. Some of the wild animals that you can find in this area include bison, deer, black bear, and grizzly bear.

8 California Favorite Foods Tourist Travelers

California is one country that is currently in the United States, especially on the west coast. This country is also one of the states with the most citizens in the United States. Besides being unique because of many tourist attractions in California, many California foods are interesting to try. Here are some types of food that can be tasted.

Fish Tacos

Ish tacos are one type of food that must be cultivated when going to California. This one food is identical to Mexico than California.

Yes, it’s true, this food comes from Mexico which then goes to California. However, because California is in Pacific waters, tacos food feels a change, that is, with a fish pedestal.
Fish tacos indicate a distinctive taste from coastal areas of the United States. And in California, it’s not difficult to pursue this food.


Just like fish tacos, burritos are one type of Mexican food that is familiar in California. We can also look for this food as a typical snack that is easy to find.

Burrito is created with tortillas whose inner elements are filled with many kinds of fillings — starting from meat, vegetables, and other filling ingredients while there are also more complex types of burritos.
The burrito can contain rice, kidney beans, vegetables, and cheese. The burrito is wrapped in heated tortilla skin. The origin of the word burrito itself is from Spanish which means little donkey. This food is indeed similar to a donkey’s ear.


The next typical California food is pho. This one food is not from Mexico, but the taste of Vietnam. This is because the population of Vietnam in California is quite high.

Pho is a Vietnamese-American processed food that is becoming popular. You can try it. This food was created from famous noodle soup in recent years in America, especially California.
This noodle soup is made from meat or chicken which is then changed with basil, lime, and so on to make the flavor more complex.


Sushiritto is a food made from processed sushi and even a burrito. This food is unique and can be among the most searched by tourists in California.

By combining Asian and Mexican specialties, Sushiritto is unique and delicious. This food is rolled like sushi, but it contains elements of eating like a burrito.

This processed food is given a distinctive coastal flavor in the presence of seaweed which is among the elements of sushi packaging — the best place to eat this hybrid dish in San Francisco. If you are near tourist attractions in San Francisco, you can look for this food.

Avocado Toast

California is one of the countries that are familiar with avocados, aka avocado. So that avocado-processed foods are also a pretty favorite in this country. One that must be tried is avocado toast.

This food is converted from avocado and mixed with toast. This food can be found quite easily, especially during breakfast times. Along the coast, there are also many places that sell it.
Beside with bread, avocado toast is also changed with other food ingredients, like eggs, meat, and is equipped with spices such as salt and pepper.

In-N-Out Burger

The next California food is the In-N-Out burger. Like burgers in general, the In-N-Out burger is also among fast-food aka fast food that can be found there.

This food is also served with french fries. Also with pickles and even special sauces that make the taste unique. This one food was launched in Los Angeles, in 1948.

Currently, the In-N-Out burger is among the favorite foods that are loved. The menu offered also varies, ranging from cheeseburgers, hamburgers, double-double, and so on.

Ramen Burger

Again there are Asian and American processed menus that are popular in California. This food also serves Japanese specialties with western food. Born an attractive and anti-stream burger ramen.

This food is like a burger in general. However, burger bread is made from Japanese-style ramen. In addition to that, burger meat is also changed from the most Asian shoyu sauce.

You can get these burger ramen in many cities in California. One of the famous ones in Los Angeles. There are marketed ramen burgers with not a few flavors. If you happen to be in a tourist spot in Los Angeles, try this burger ramen.

Carne Asada Fries

If we’re in San Diego, then this food is one of the best and recommended. Very suitable to accompany tourist and surfing work near Attractions in San Diego.
arne asada fries are foods that are changed from french fries. These fried potatoes are then handed over with sour cream and cheese. Similar to nachos, but rather to processed, fried potatoes.

These foods are not few found in America, especially San Diego. This menu is a processed Mexican menu that is modified with a somewhat different technique. In Mexico alone, the original food has been around since the 1990s.

Deadline For Tariffs To Approach, Trump Returns To Send Envoys To China

The governments of the United States (US) and China claimed to have made civilization in their trade negotiations and agreed to meet again in Beijing.

The two sides worked hard to find the best solution that could end the financial conflict between the two countries before the termination period of the termination of the tariff was completed on March 1.

On Thursday (1/31/2019), US President Donald Trump wrote that he would send two of his trustworthy negotiators to China after the two countries’ trade negotiations that had been held for the past two days had been completed in Washington.

Finance Minister Steven Mnuchin and US Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer were set to visit China in mid-February to hold the next round of conversations.

Trump also opened a direct face-to-face meeting with President Xi Jinping after receiving a legitimate invitation from the Chinese leader. Trump had mentioned on his Twitter account that the two countries’ trade agreements would not be affordable until he and Xi Jinping met soon.

The two leaders of the country might be able to exchange ideas after Trump implemented his plan to meet home with North Korean leader Kim Jong Un in February.

“Both teams have made civilization extraordinary, but that doesn’t mean we already have an [trade] agreement,” Trump told reporters in the Oval Office after meeting with Chinese Deputy Prime Minister Liu He, as quoted by Bloomberg.

At the same opportunity, Trump wrote that China had agreed to purchase large amounts of US soybeans. The offer was called a sign of good intentions.

The agreement between the two parties to continue to negotiate added hope that the two countries with the world’s largest economy could find techniques to resolve their conflicts before March 1.

If it fails, the Trump administration has claimed to boost tariffs on imports of merchandise worth the US $ 200 billion from China.
However, there is not much concrete evidence that they have bridged the differences between urgent issues such as China’s intelligence on intellectual property and the involvement of the state in its economy.

Based on information from an acknowledgment published by the Xinhua news agency on Friday (1/2/2019), conversations between the two parties were held honestly, accurately, and productively. Although there are no further details, the dialogue between the two countries is said to have made civilization important.

Meanwhile, in a statement, the White House merely wrote that it had made civilization even though there was still little work to be done.
The White House stressed its threat to boost tariffs on March 1, when it is not affordable satisfactory trade agreements.

To reporters, Lighthizer on Thursday wrote that both parties had been involved in intense and detailed discussions. Much of the talks focused on US demands for China’s structural reforms this week.

However, he acknowledged that both parties had just begun to form negotiation documents. This is a sign that there are many activities left to complete the substance.

Many parties in the US business community continue to pick up caution about the agreements they fear could leave many complex problems in unresolved economic relations.

Myron Brilliant, executive vice president and head of international affairs at the US Chamber of Commerce, said, even though civilizations are being reached this week, the practice is still not a little hard work that must be sought.

The slow conversation and a mountain of issues that still had to be agreed upon to compile what could become a tense time to the limit of the period of March 1. Trump’s and Xi Jinping’s face-to-face meetings are considered the only technique to bridge their differences.

“The statement certainly signifies progress, but limited civilization about the core of a long-term structural issue that alienates both parties,” said Eswar Prasad, a professor of trade intelligence at Cornell University.
“The statement was completed with the threat that China needs to offer more substantive concessions to enable an agreement to be reached which could avoid further tariffs.”

MNC Securities: China-US Peace Agreement Becomes Positive SUN Sentiment

MNC Sekuritas estimates that Sovereign Debt Instruments will still potentially experience an escalation in commerce Monday (02/04/2019), supported by positive sentiment from the China-US trade agreement.

MNC Sekuritas Head of Fixed Income Research Division I Made Adi Saputra wrote that in addition, the market was still warm with the recognition of the Fed in the past week being patient (dovish) in assessing the escalation of interest rates going forward, to the extent that the Fed still supporting its benchmark interest rate in the range of 2.25% -2.5%.

“With a number of these factors, we recommend that investors continue to observe the direction of SUN price movements in the secondary market. The direction of movement in the exchange rate will provoke movement in SUN prices on the secondary market,” he said in a daily study on Monday (4/2 )

Some reasonably exciting series to be observed include the following FR0070, FR0075, FR0061, FR0069, FR0053, and FR0056.

On Friday’s trading (1/2), SUN prices experienced an escalation along with the strengthening of the rupiah exchange rate against the US dollar. The price changes that occur on average are 73 bps, to the point that it pushes down the average yield rate by 10 bps.

SUN prices in the 1-4 year short tenor experienced an escalation of 37 bps, which resulted in yields falling by 10 bps. Meanwhile, SUN with a 5-7 year tenure felt an average price change of 30 bps which led to a decline in yields of up to 18 bps.

For the price of SUN with a tenor of more than 7 years, there was an escalation in the average rate of 94 bps which caused an evolution of yield of 32 bps.

Price increases were also dominant for the evolution of the benchmark series SUN yields. The most significant price increase occurred in the 15-year benchmark series, which amounted to 280 bps, which led to a decline in return of 33 bps.

For the 5-year benchmark series SUN, the yield fell 7 bps which were driven by an escalation in the price of 32 bps. Meanwhile, 10-year SUNs experienced a decrease in the yield of 11 bps due to an evolution of 80 bps.

For a 20-year tenor SUN, there was a decrease in the yield of 19 bps amid increasing price changes to reach 182 bps.

The limited movement of SUN yields on trading last weekend was provoked by the case of rupiah exchange rate movements which felt a weakening against the US dollar. At the beginning of the trade, the rupiah started with a rally, but in the middle of the trading session felt a weakness before returning to indicate strength before closing.

Besides, the positive sentiments of the China-US trade agreement also boosted the price of state bonds amid the Fed’s cleverness.

In the past week, the movement of prices of US dollar-denominated SUN has seen positive changes amid strong US Treasury yields.

The INDO24 yield felt a decrease of 4 bps to a level of 3.722% after experiencing an escalation in the price of 18 bps. Furthermore, the INDO29 yield appeared to decline 6 bps to 4,074% after suffering an increase of 53 bps.

Meanwhile, INDO44 and INDO49 indicate changes in yields every 1.6 bps to the levels of 4.931% and 0.14 bps to the level of 4.841%. This change was caused by price movements that experienced an escalation of 26 bps and 2.4 bps respectively.

SUN trading volume which was filed at the end of the trading weekend was valued at IDR 21.25 trillion out of 46 series transacted.

The highest commercial volume was found in the reference series SUN, namely, FR0078, with a value of IDR4.5 trillion from 144 transactions and followed by series FR0077 with a value of Rp2.79 trillion for 98 transactions.

Meanwhile, the commercial volume of corporate debt that was filed was higher than the previous retail amount, reaching Rp1,349 trillion from 43 series transacted.

The Tower Bersama Infrastructure Phase I Year III Sustainable Bonds (TBIG03CN1) becomes a corporate bond with an enormous trading volume, which is IDR 200 billion from 2 transactions. Followed by 2015 Series C Indonesia Eximbank II Phase V Sustainable Bonds (BEXI02CCN5) worth Rp180 billion from 3 deals.

Meanwhile, the rupiah strengthened 28 pts (0.20%) to the level of Rp13,945 per US dollar on Friday (1/2). Strengthening occurred amid a regional currency correction against the US dollar.

The rupiah led the strengthening of regional currencies, followed by the Japanese yen (JPY) by 0.01%. In contrast, the deepest weakening was found in the South Korean won (KRW) and China’s renminbi, each at 0.56% and 0.52%.

Yields on the 10-year US Treasury have blocked up 5 bps to 2.684%, while the 30-year tenor was blocked up 2 bps to 3.025%. This movement occurred in the midst of the various US stock market situation.

The DJIA index was blocked up 26 bps to 25063.89, and the NASDAQ index was prevented, losing 25 bps to 7263.87.

Meanwhile, the UK bond market (Gilt) and the 10-year German bond market feel a positive direction of movement, so that each is at the level of 1.251% and 0.167%.

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